Sustainable Health Agenda for the Americas 2018-2030, Goal 11: Health Inequalities and Inequities


Reduce inequality and inequity in health through intersectoral, multisectoral, regional, and subregional approaches to the social and environmental determinants of health.


This goal is important for addressing the persistent inequities in health in the Region.

Consistent with the principles of this Agenda and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of leaving no one behind, this goal considers multisectoral strategies for reducing inequities in health by promoting health and well-being through actions on the social and environmental determinants of health, including social protection, to address gender, ethnic, and human rights issues.

The following are essential in this regard:

  • strengthening the capacity of countries to measure, monitor, and systematically analyze health inequalities;
  • implementing the Health in All Policies strategy for intersectoral action to address the social and environmental determinants of health;
  • promoting healthy environments and access to health services equitably to improve health and well-being and to reduce preventable deaths and the burden of diseases throughout the life course, while preventing any disproportionate impacts on public health among disadvantaged populations or communities, including displaced populations, refugees, and migrants[1].


  • Demonstrate a marked reduction health inequity gaps as measured by any of the following equity stratifiers: a place of residence (rural/urban), race, ethnicity, occupation, gender, sex, age, education, and socioeconomic status using simple inequality measures (absolute and relative gap) (WHO Handbook on Health Inequality Monitoring).
  • Reduce substantially the number of deaths and diseases caused by hazardous chemicals and by pollution and air, water, and soil pollution, especially where environmental risk may be disproportionately impacting disadvantaged populations or communities (adapted from SDG target 3.9).
  • Reduce significantly inequities related to water quality and sanitation by moving forward with the responsible sectors on access to water and sanitation services and the safe management thereof (SDG targets 6.1 and 6.2).
  • Generate policies that incorporate the safe and healthy mobility and migration of people (SDG target 10.7 and PAHO Policy on Health of Migrants, document CD55/R13 [2016]).
  • Promote healthy, safe, and risk-free working environments for workers, including migrant workers and persons in precarious employment (adapted from PAHO Strategic Plan outcome 3.5 and Plan of Action of Workers’ Health, document CD54/10, Rev. 1 [2015]).
  • [1]  PAHO. Health of Migrants. (Document CD55/11, Rev. 1 [2016])


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